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Interview Questions And Answers

What is 'Write-ahead log' in Sql Server 2000 ?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: Sql Server     Points: 10

Before understanding it we must have an idea about the transaction log files. These files are the files which holds the data for change in database .
Now we explain when we are doing some Sql Server 2000 query or any Sql query like Sql insert query,delete sql query,update sql query and change the data in sql server database it cannot change the database directly to table .Sql server extracts the data that is modified by sql server 2000 query or by sql query and places it in memory.Once data is stores in memory user can make changes to that a log file is gernated this log file is gernated in every five mintues of transaction is done. After this sql server writes changes to database with the help of transaction log files. This is called Write-ahead log.

What do u mean by Extents and types of Extends ?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: Sql Server     Points: 10

An Extent is a collection of 8 sequential pages to hold database from becoming fregmented. Fragment means these pages relates to same table of database these also holds in indexing. To avoid for fragmentation Sql Server assign space to table in extents. So that the Sql Server keep upto date data in extents. Because these pages are continously one after another. There are usually two types of extends:-Uniform and Mixed.
Uniform means when extent is own by a single object means all collection of 8 ages hold by a single extend is called uniform.
Mixed mean when more then one object is comes in extents is known as mixed extents.

What is Data Integrity and it's categories ?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: ASP.Net     Points: 10

Enforcing data integrity ensures the quality of the data in the database. For example, if an employee is entered with an employee_id value of 123, the database should not allow another employee to have an ID with the same value. If you have an employee_rating column intended to have values ranging from 1 to 5, the database should not accept a value of 6. If the table has a dept_id column that stores the department number for the employee, the database should allow only values that are valid for the department numbers in the company. Two important steps in planning tables are to identify valid values for a column and to decide how to enforce the integrity of the data in the column. Data integrity falls into these categories:
1) Entity integrity
2) Domain integrity
3) Referential integrity
4) User-defined integrity
Entity Integrity: Entity integrity defines a row as a unique entity for a particular table. Entity integrity enforces the integrity of the identifier column(s) or the primary key of a table (through indexes, UNIQUE constraints, PRIMARY KEY constraints, or IDENTITY properties).
Domain Integrity: Domain integrity is the validity of entries for a given column. You can enforce domain integrity by restricting the type (through data types), the format (through CHECK constraints and rules), or the range of possible values (through FOREIGN KEY constraints, CHECK constraints, DEFAULT efinitions, NOT NULL definitions, and rules).
Referential Integrity: Referential integrity preserves the defined relationships between tables when records are entered or deleted. In Microsoft® SQL ServerT 2000, referential integrity is based on relationships between foreign keys and primary keys or between foreign keys and unique keys (through FOREIGN KEY and CHECK constraints). Referential integrity ensures that key values are consistent across tables. Such consistency requires that there be no references to nonexistent values and that if a key value changes, all references to it change consistently throughout the database. When you enforce referential integrity, SQL Server prevents users from:
· Adding records to a related table if there is no associated record in the primary table.
· Changing values in a primary table that result in orphaned records in a related table.
· Deleting records from a primary table if there are matching related records.
For example, with the sales and titles tables in the pubs database, referential integrity is based on the relationship between the foreign key (title_id) in the sales table and the primary key (title_id) in the titles table.
User-Defined: Integrity User-defined integrity allows you to define specific business rules that do not fall into one of the other integrity categories. All of the integrity categories support user-defined integrity (all column- and table-level constraints in CREATE TABLE, stored procedures, and triggers).

How to get which Process is Blocked in SQL SERVER ?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: Sql Server     Points: 10

There are two ways to get this sp_who and sp_who2 . You cannot get any detail about the sp_who2 but its provide more information then the sp_who . And other option from which we can find which process is blocked by other process is by using Enterprise Manager or Management Studio, these two commands work much faster and more efficiently than these GUI-based front-ends.

What is a schema? What are the limitations of a DTD?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: ASP.Net     Points: 10

SCHEMA is nothing but METADATA. The schema holds all the information of the xml file that is to be deployed in the project. Metatdata is nothing about data about data since we know that xml is used for data representation language we will be able to understand what metadata is. Metadata includes the tags that is going to be exchanged to and fro from another xml file. DTD (DATA TYPE DEFINITION ) which supervises two conditions namely well formedness and closeness of the xml file. So the user should be aware of what tags he was put into use of this xml file 'A' should be intimated to another application's XML file 'B', by then our xml file will interact with the another xml file, this is the major limitation and mandatory issue that the developers should follow.

What is DOM?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: ASP.Net     Points: 10

Document Object Model (DOM) is a W3C specification that defines a standard (abstract) programming API to build, navigate and update XML documents. It is a "tree-structure-based" interface. As per the DOM specification, the XML parsers (such as MSXML or Xerces), load the entire XML document into memory, before it can be processed. XPath is used to navigate randomly in the document, and various DOM methods are used to create and update (add elements, delete elements, add/remove attributes, etc.) the XML documents.

difference between Shadowing and overriding

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: ASP.Net     Points: 10

Overriding redefines only the implementation while shadowing redefines the whole element.On the other side In overriding derived classes can refer the parent class element by using "ME" keyword, but in shadowing you can access it by "MYBASE".

What is Automatic Memory Management in ASP.NET?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: ASP.Net     Points: 10

Automatic Memory Management: From a programmer's perspective, this is probably the single biggest benefit of the .NET Framework. No, I'm not kidding. Every project I've worked on in my long career of DOS and Windows development has suffered at some point from memory management issues. Proper memory management is hard. Even very good programmers have difficulty with it. It's entirely too easy for a small mistake to cause a program to chew up memory and crash, sometimes bringing the operating system to a screeching halt in the process.

Programmers understand that they're responsible for releasing any memory that they allocate, but they're not very good at actually doing it. In addition, functions that allocate memory as a side effect abound in the Windows API and in the C runtime library. It's nearly impossible for a programmer to know all of the rules. Even when the programmer follows the rules, a small memory leak in a support library can cause big problems if called enough.

The .NET Framework solves the memory management problems by implementing a garbage collector that can keep track of allocated memory references and release the memory when it is no longer referenced. A large part of what makes this possible is the blazing speed of today's processors. When you're running a 2 GHz machine, it's easy to spare a few cycles for memory management. Not that the garbage collector takes a huge number of cycles--it's incredibly efficient.
The garbage collector isn't perfect and it doesn't solve the problem of mis-managing other scarce resources (file handles, for example), but it relieves programmers from having to worry about a huge source of bugs that trips almost everybody up in other programming environments.
On balance, automatic memory management is a huge win in almost every situation.

difference between GridLayout and FormLayout ?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: ASP.Net     Points: 10

GridLayout helps in providing absolute positioning of every control placed on the page.It is easier to devlop page with absolute positioning because control can be placed any where according to our requirement.But FormLayout is little different only experience Web Devloper used this one reason is it is helpful for wider range browser.If there is absolute positioning we can notice that there are number of DIV tags.But in FormLayout whole work are done through the tables.

What do you mean by CodeDom ?

Author: Athira Sreejith          Posted Date: April 23, 2009    Category: ASP.Net     Points: 10

In a simple language CodeDom is an object model which display or represent source code.CodeDom is specially designed for language independent. And the method is quite simple when we create CodeDom for a program we can generate the source code in any .NET language.
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