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What is Shared member of the class?

Posted By :Subhransu Sekhar Jena     Posted Date :October 31, 2014    Points :40   Category :VB.Net 
It is member of the class which can be access without creating instance of the class. It belongs to the class and not to the instance of the class.

You can also find related Interview Question to What is Shared member of the class?  below: 

This is the progam using inheritence, what is the order of calling constructors and what is the output?
Public Class ConstructorEx
Public Class Class1
Dim a As Integer
Sub New()
a = 1
Console.WriteLine("a in initialized in Class1")
End Sub
End Class

Public Class Class2
Inherits Class1
Dim b As Integer
Sub New()
b = 1
Console.WriteLine("b in initialized in Class2")
End Sub
End Class
Public Class Class3
Inherits Class2
Dim c As Integer
Sub New()
c = 1
Console.WriteLine("c in initialized in Class2")
End Sub
End Class

Shared Sub main()
'Creation of the object of type Class3
Dim c As New Class3()
Console.ReadLine()
End Sub
End Class

  
In this example creation of the object of type class3 calls the Class3 constructor and that constructor calls Class2 Constructor Class2 Calls Class1 Constructor.So first Class1 constructor will execute and then control will be trasfered to class2 constructor,After executing the class2 constructor the control will be treansfered to Class3 constructor.
means

Class1
|---->Sub New()---------------------|
| 'First it will execute <-----|
| End Sub |
| |
| Class2 |
|--->Sub New()----------------------|
| 'Second it will execute<-------|
| End Sub |
| |
| Class3 |
----Sub New()-----------------------|
'Third this will executes<-----|
End Sub

Means In the Creation of the object of type C, First Class1 Constuctor initializes the data, then class2 then class3.

So output of this program is
a in initialized in Class1
b in initialized in Class2
c in initialized in Class3
(More...)

Where are shared assemblies stored in .NET?

  
Shared Assemblies are stored in Global Assembly Cache also known as GAC. (More...)

What is the difference between a Struct and a Class?

  
The struct type is suitable for representing lightweight objects such as Point, Rectangle, and Color. Although it is possible to represent a point as a class, a struct is more efficient in some scenarios. For example, if you declare an array of 1000 Point objects, you will allocate additional memory for referencing each object. In this case, the struct is less expensive.

When you create a struct object using the new operator, it gets created and the appropriate constructor is called. Unlike classes, structs can be instantiated without using the new operator. If you do not use new, the fields will remain unassigned and the object cannot be used until all of the fields are initialized.

It is an error to declare a default (parameterless) constructor for a struct. A default constructor is always provided to initialize the struct members to their default values.

It is an error to initialize an instance field in a struct.

There is no inheritance for structs as there is for classes. A struct cannot inherit from another struct or class, and it cannot be the base of a class. Structs, however, inherit from the base class Object. A struct can implement interfaces, and it does that exactly as classes do.

A struct is a value type, while a class is a reference type. (More...)

Can we call a base class method without creating instance?

  
Its possible If its a static method.

Its possible by inheriting from that class also.

Its possible from derived classes using base keyword. (More...)

What is Private Constructor? and it's use? Can you create instance of a class which has Private Constructor?

  
When a class declares only private instance constructors, it is not possible for classes outside the program to derive from the class or to directly create instances of it. (Except Nested classes)
Make a constructor private if:

1) You want it to be available only to the class itself. For example, you might have a special constructor used only in the implementation of your class' Clone method.

2) You do not want instances of your component to be created. For example, you may have a class containing nothing but Shared utility functions, and no instance data. Creating instances of the class would waste memory. (More...)

What is the difference between interface and abstract class ?

  
a class may inherit several interfaces, a class may inherit only one abstract class (More...)

What are private assemblies and shared assemblies?

  
A private assembly is used only by a single application, and is stored in that application's install directory (or a subdirectory therein). A shared assembly is one that can be referenced by more than one application. In order to share an assembly, the assembly must be explicitly built for this purpose by giving it a cryptographically strong name (referred to as a shared name). By contrast, a private assembly name need only be unique within the application that uses it.
By making a distinction between private and shared assemblies, we introduce the notion of sharing as an explicit decision. Simply by deploying private assemblies to an application directory, you can guarantee that that application will run only with the bits it was built and deployed with. References to private assemblies will only be resolved locally to the private application directory.
There are several reasons you may elect to build and use shared assemblies, such as the ability to express version policy. The fact that shared assemblies have a cryptographically strong name means that only the author of the assembly has the key to produce a new version of that assembly. Thus, if you make a policy statement that says you want to accept a new version of an assembly, you can have some confidence that version updates will be controlled and verified by the author. Otherwise, you don't have to accept them.
For locally installed applications, a shared assembly is typically explicitly installed into the global assembly cache (a local cache of assemblies maintained by the .NET Framework). Key to the version management features of the .NET Framework is that downloaded code does not affect the execution of locally installed applications. Downloaded code is put in a special download cache and is not globally available on the machine even if some of the downloaded components are built as shared assemblies.
The classes that ship with the .NET Framework are all built as shared assemblies. (More...)

If I want to build a shared assembly, does that require the overhead of signing and managing key pairs?

  
Building a shared assembly does involve working with cryptographic keys. Only the public key is strictly needed when the assembly is being built. Compilers targeting the .NET Framework provide command line options (or use custom attributes) for supplying the public key when building the assembly. It is common to keep a copy of a common public key in a source database and point build scripts to this key. Before the assembly is shipped, the assembly must be fully signed with the corresponding private key. This is done using an SDK tool called SN.exe (Strong Name).
Strong name signing does not involve certificates like Authenticode does. There are no third party organizations involved, no fees to pay, and no certificate chains. In addition, the overhead for verifying a strong name is much less than it is for Authenticode. However, strong names do not make any statements about trusting a particular publisher. Strong names allow you to ensure that the contents of a given assembly haven't been tampered with, and that the assembly loaded on your behalf at run time comes from the same publisher as the one you developed against. But it makes no statement about whether you can trust the identity of that publisher. (More...)

Differentiate between a template class and class template.

  
Template class:
A generic definition or a parameterized class not instantiated until the client provides the needed information. It's jargon for plain templates.

Class template:
A class template specifies how individual classes can be constructed much like the way a class specifies how individual objects can be constructed. It's jargon for plain classes. (More...)

What is an adaptor class or Wrapper class?

  
A class that has no functionality of its own. Its member functions hide the use of a third party software component or an object with the non-compatible interface or a non- object- oriented implementation. (More...)

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