Primary key is a set of one or more fields/columns of a table that uniquely identify a record in database table. It can not accept null, duplicate values. Only one Candidate Key can be Primary Key.
Foreign Key is a field in database table that is Primary key in another table. It can accept multiple null, duplicate values. For more help refer the article Difference between primary key and foreign key.
Super key is a set of one or more than one keys that can be used to identify a record uniquely in a table.Example : Primary key, Unique key, Alternate key are subset of Super Keys.
A Candidate Key is a set of one or more fields/columns that can identify a record uniquely in a table. There can be multiple Candidate Keys in one table. Each Candidate Key can work as Primary Key.
A Alternate key is a key that can be work as a primary key. Basically it is a candidate key that currently is not primary key.
Composite Key is a combination of more than one fields/columns of a table. It can be a Candidate key, Primary key.
Uniquekey is a set of one or more fields/columns of a table that uniquely identify a record in database table. It is like Primary key but it can accept only one null value and it can not have duplicate values.