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What is Public or shared assemblies ?

Posted By :Muthu     Posted Date :November 02, 2010    Points :10   Category :.NET Framework 
These are static assemblies that must have a unique shared name and can be used by any application.
An application uses a private assembly by referring to the assembly using a static path or through an XML-based application configuration file. While the CLR doesn't enforce versioning policies-checking whether the correct version is used-for private assemblies, it ensures that an
application uses the correct shared assemblies with which the application was built. Thus, an application uses a specific shared assembly by referring to the specific shared assembly, and the CLR ensures that the correct version is loaded at runtime.

You can also find related Interview Question to What is Public or shared assemblies ?  below: 

Where are shared assemblies stored in .NET?

Shared Assemblies are stored in Global Assembly Cache also known as GAC. (More...)

What are private assemblies and shared assemblies?

A private assembly is used only by a single application, and is stored in that application's install directory (or a subdirectory therein). A shared assembly is one that can be referenced by more than one application. In order to share an assembly, the assembly must be explicitly built for this purpose by giving it a cryptographically strong name (referred to as a shared name). By contrast, a private assembly name need only be unique within the application that uses it.
By making a distinction between private and shared assemblies, we introduce the notion of sharing as an explicit decision. Simply by deploying private assemblies to an application directory, you can guarantee that that application will run only with the bits it was built and deployed with. References to private assemblies will only be resolved locally to the private application directory.
There are several reasons you may elect to build and use shared assemblies, such as the ability to express version policy. The fact that shared assemblies have a cryptographically strong name means that only the author of the assembly has the key to produce a new version of that assembly. Thus, if you make a policy statement that says you want to accept a new version of an assembly, you can have some confidence that version updates will be controlled and verified by the author. Otherwise, you don't have to accept them.
For locally installed applications, a shared assembly is typically explicitly installed into the global assembly cache (a local cache of assemblies maintained by the .NET Framework). Key to the version management features of the .NET Framework is that downloaded code does not affect the execution of locally installed applications. Downloaded code is put in a special download cache and is not globally available on the machine even if some of the downloaded components are built as shared assemblies.
The classes that ship with the .NET Framework are all built as shared assemblies. (More...)

This is the progam using inheritence, what is the order of calling constructors and what is the output?
Public Class ConstructorEx
Public Class Class1
Dim a As Integer
Sub New()
a = 1
Console.WriteLine("a in initialized in Class1")
End Sub
End Class

Public Class Class2
Inherits Class1
Dim b As Integer
Sub New()
b = 1
Console.WriteLine("b in initialized in Class2")
End Sub
End Class
Public Class Class3
Inherits Class2
Dim c As Integer
Sub New()
c = 1
Console.WriteLine("c in initialized in Class2")
End Sub
End Class

Shared Sub main()
'Creation of the object of type Class3
Dim c As New Class3()
End Sub
End Class

In this example creation of the object of type class3 calls the Class3 constructor and that constructor calls Class2 Constructor Class2 Calls Class1 Constructor.So first Class1 constructor will execute and then control will be trasfered to class2 constructor,After executing the class2 constructor the control will be treansfered to Class3 constructor.

|---->Sub New()---------------------|
| 'First it will execute <-----|
| End Sub |
| |
| Class2 |
|--->Sub New()----------------------|
| 'Second it will execute<-------|
| End Sub |
| |
| Class3 |
----Sub New()-----------------------|
'Third this will executes<-----|
End Sub

Means In the Creation of the object of type C, First Class1 Constuctor initializes the data, then class2 then class3.

So output of this program is
a in initialized in Class1
b in initialized in Class2
c in initialized in Class3

What are private and shared assemblies?

A private assembly resides within the directory of the application, it can be used only by the application.
A shared assebly is stored in the global assebly cache (GAC), which is the repository of asseblies maintained at runtime, a shared assembly can be referenced by more than one application. (More...)

where Shared Assemblies stored?

The shared assemblies are stored in Global assembly cache. (More...)

Can you have two assemblies with the same name in GAC?

Yes you can have two or more assemblies having same name in GAC only when assemblies version no is different.As we know that all assemblies in .NET is having version no. (More...)

What is Satellite Assemblies in .NET?

Assemblies which contains culture information are known as satellite assemblies. Satellite assembly is used to get language specific resources for an application. (More...)

If I want to build a shared assembly, does that require the overhead of signing and managing key pairs?

Building a shared assembly does involve working with cryptographic keys. Only the public key is strictly needed when the assembly is being built. Compilers targeting the .NET Framework provide command line options (or use custom attributes) for supplying the public key when building the assembly. It is common to keep a copy of a common public key in a source database and point build scripts to this key. Before the assembly is shipped, the assembly must be fully signed with the corresponding private key. This is done using an SDK tool called SN.exe (Strong Name).
Strong name signing does not involve certificates like Authenticode does. There are no third party organizations involved, no fees to pay, and no certificate chains. In addition, the overhead for verifying a strong name is much less than it is for Authenticode. However, strong names do not make any statements about trusting a particular publisher. Strong names allow you to ensure that the contents of a given assembly haven't been tampered with, and that the assembly loaded on your behalf at run time comes from the same publisher as the one you developed against. But it makes no statement about whether you can trust the identity of that publisher. (More...)

How can I see what assemblies are installed in the global assembly cache?

The .NET Framework ships with a Windows shell extension for viewing the assembly cache. Navigating to % windir%\assembly with the Windows Explorer activates the viewer. (More...)

Is versioning applicable to private assemblies?

Versioning concept is only applicable to global assembly cache (GAC) as private assembly lie in their individual folders. (More...)

What are the Types of Assemblies?

One of the disadvantages of using Visual Studio.NET and the .NET framework to develop applications has been the lack of cross-platform support. Since the introduction of the .NET framework and common language run time a few years ago, there have been a few projects designed to bring the .NET framework to other platforms, including Linux and UNIX. The DotGNU project is touted as the "Free software alternative to .NET" and encompasses a number of projects, including DotGNU Portable .NET, which is designed to be used to compile and run C# and C applications on a multitude of platforms, including GNU/Linux, FreeBSD, Mac OS X, and Windows. One of the main features of the product is it's compatibility with EMCA standards for C# and the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), as well as Microsoft's own CLI implementation in the .NET framework. The project chose to go with a "Virtual Machine" implementation, where bytecode is transformed into a simple instruction set which is then passed to a "Converted Virtual Machine", which then are executed through an interpreter. This approach is different to other open source .NET implementations, but provides more flexibility when porting the project to other platforms. At the core of the project is the runtime engine (ilrun) and compiler (cscc) with an implementation of System.Windows.Forms that make
developing for the platform easier, as it doesn't required translation through another toolkit or toolset. (More...)

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