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Network Protocols

Posted By:Shashi Ray       Posted Date: April 13, 2010    Points: 25    Category: General    URL: http://www.dotnetspark.com  

Network Protocols

n       Network protocols are the set of predefined rules, used by the devices connected to network to communicate with each other

n       Different network protocols include NetBIOS/NetBEUI, TCP/IP and IPX/SPX

n       NetBIOS protocol is used for communication within a LAN and operates at the session layer of the OSI model

n       NetBIOS provides three types of services namely Name service, Session service and Datagram service

n       Name service allows an application to register its NetBIOS name in the network


n      Two computers can establish a session for data transfer using the Session service which is a connection-oriented service

n      In the connectionless Datagram service, data is transferred in the form of small packets called datagrams

n      NetBIOS name resolution is used to map a NetBIOS names to an IP address. Methods used for resolution are, NetBIOS Name Server (NBNS), NetBIOS name cache and Local Broadcast

n      LMHOSTS file is a static file that resolves the names to IP address for applications running on the remote computer

n      TCP/IP is a five-layer protocol suite developed before the OSI model


n      TCP is a connection-oriented, reliable and process-to-process transport layer protocol in the TCP/IP protocol suite

n      At TCP, data is divided into segments with each segment having sequence number for reassembly of the data at the destination

n      Connection establishment requires three-way handshaking; connection termination requires four-way handshaking process

n      IP is an unreliable connectionless protocol responsible for source-to-destination delivery

n      Packets in the IP layer are called datagrams which consist of data and header


n      Fragmentation is the division of a datagram into smaller units when size of the datagram exceeds MTU

n      ARP protocol is used to obtain the physical address of the device when its logical address is known

n      RARP protocol is used to obtain the logical address of the device when its physical address is known

n      ICMP protocol is used to send error and control messages. Two types of ICMP messages are Error-reporting messages and Query messages

n      Error reporting messages include Destination Unreachable, Source Quench, Time exceeded, Parameter Problem and Redirection


n      Query messages include Echo Request and Reply, Timestamp Request and Reply, Address Mask Request and Reply and Router Solicitation and Advertisement

n      IGMP protocol is used to govern the management of multicast groups in a network. Three types of IGMP messages are Query, Membership Report and Leave Report

n      UDP protocol operates at the transport layer and provides connectionless and unreliable service

n      The UDP packet is called as user datagram which is encapsulated into an IP packet

n      Incoming and outgoing queues hold messages going to and from UDP


n      Novell NetWare operating system uses IPX/SPX protocol for communication within a network

n      IPX operates at the network layer and provides connectionless routing services using either RIP or NLSP

n      HDLC is a data link control protocol used for point-to-point communications over a serial links

n      Three types of devices used in HDLC are primary station, secondary station and combined station

n      HDLC supports three configuration modes: Normal Response Mode, Asynchronous Response Mode and Asynchronous Balanced Mode.





Shashi Ray


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