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Interview Questions And Answers

What is Application Domain?

Author: Amit Mehra          Posted Date: September 07, 2008    Category: .NET Framework     Points: 10

The primary purpose of the AppDomain is to isolate an application from other applications. Win32 processes provide isolation by having distinct memory address spaces. This is effective, but it is expensive and doesn't scale well. The .NET runtime enforces AppDomain isolation by keeping control over the use of memory - all memory in the AppDomain is managed by the .NET runtime, so the runtime can ensure that AppDomains do not access each other's memory.
Objects in different application domains communicate either by transporting copies of objects across application domain boundaries, or by using a proxy to exchange messages.
MarshalByRefObject is the base class for objects that communicate across application domain boundaries by exchanging messages using a proxy. Objects that do not inherit from MarshalByRefObject are implicitly marshal by value. When a remote application references a marshal by value object, a copy of the object is passed across application domain boundaries.

Which namespace is the base class for .net Class library?

Author: Amit Mehra          Posted Date: September 07, 2008    Category: .NET Framework     Points: 10

system.object

How does CAS work?

Author: Amit Mehra          Posted Date: September 07, 2008    Category: .NET Framework     Points: 10

The CAS security policy revolves around two key concepts - code groups and permissions. Each .NET assembly is a member of a particular code group, and each code group is granted the permissions specified in a named permission set.
For example, using the default security policy, a control downloaded from a web site belongs to the 'Zone - Internet' code group, which adheres to the permissions defined by the 'Internet' named permission set. (Naturally the 'Internet' named permission set represents a very restrictive range of permissions.)

What is portable executable (PE)?

Author: Amit Mehra          Posted Date: September 07, 2008    Category: .NET Framework     Points: 10

The file format defining the structure that all executable files (EXE) and Dynamic Link Libraries (DLL) must use to allow them to be loaded and executed by Windows. PE is derived from the Microsoft Common Object File Format (COFF). The EXE and DLL files created using the .NET Framework obey the PE/COFF formats and also add additional header and data sections to the files that are only used by the CLR. The specification for the PE/COFF file formats is available at http://www.microsoft.com/whdc/hwdev/hardware/pecoffdown.mspx

What is JIT (just in time)? how it works?

Author: Amit Mehra          Posted Date: September 07, 2008    Category: .NET Framework     Points: 10

Before Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) can be executed, it must be converted by a .NET Framework just-in-time (JIT) compiler to native code, which is CPU-specific code that runs on the same computer architecture as the JIT compiler.
Rather than using time and memory to convert all the MSIL in a portable executable (PE) file to native code, it converts the MSIL as it is needed during execution and stores the resulting native code so that it is accessible for subsequent calls.
The runtime supplies another mode of compilation called install-time code generation. The install-time code generation mode converts MSIL to native code just as the regular JIT compiler does, but it converts larger units of code at a time, storing the resulting native code for use when the assembly is subsequently loaded and executed.
As part of compiling MSIL to native code, code must pass a verification process unless an administrator has established a security policy that allows code to bypass verification. Verification examines MSIL and metadata to find out whether the code can be determined to be type safe, which means that it is known to access only the memory locations it is authorized to access.

What is MSIL, IL?

Author: Amit Mehra          Posted Date: September 07, 2008    Category: .NET Framework     Points: 10

When compiling to managed code, the compiler translates your source code into Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL), which is a CPU-independent set of instructions that can be efficiently converted to native code. MSIL includes instructions for loading, storing, initializing, and calling methods on objects, as well as instructions for arithmetic and logical operations, control flow, direct memory access, exception handling, and other operations. Microsoft intermediate language (MSIL) is a language used as the output of a number of compilers and as the input to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. The common language runtime includes a JIT compiler for converting MSIL to native code.

What is CLR, CTS, CLS?

Author: Amit Mehra          Posted Date: September 07, 2008    Category: .NET Framework     Points: 10

CLR:The .NET Framework provides a runtime environment called the Common Language Runtime or CLR (similar to the Java Virtual Machine or JVM in Java), which handles the execution of code and provides useful services for the implementation of the program. CLR takes care of code management at program execution and provides various beneficial services such as memory management, thread management, security management, code verification, compilation, and other system services. The managed code that targets CLR benefits from useful features such as cross-language integration, cross-language exception handling, versioning, enhanced security, deployment support, and debugging.

CTS:Common Type System (CTS) describes how types are declared, used and managed in the runtime and facilitates cross-language integration, type safety, and high performance code execution.

CLS:The CLS is simply a specification that defines the rules to support language integration in such a way that programs written in any language, yet can interoperate with one another, taking full advantage of inheritance, polymorphism, exceptions, and other features. These rules and the specification are documented in the ECMA proposed standard document, "Partition I Architecture",

http://msdn.microsoft.com/net/ecma/

What is .NET Framework?

Author: Amit Mehra          Posted Date: September 07, 2008    Category: .NET Framework     Points: 10

The .NET Framework has two main components: the common language runtime and the .NET Framework class library.
You can think of the runtime as an agent that manages code at execution time, providing core services such as memory management, thread management, and remoting, while also enforcing strict type safety and other forms of code accuracy that ensure security and robustness.
The class library, is a comprehensive, object-oriented collection of reusable types that you can use to develop applications ranging from traditional command-line or graphical user interface (GUI) applications to applications based on the latest innovations provided by ASP.NET, such as Web Forms and XML Web services.

Truncate Prerequisites

Author: sankar          Posted Date: September 06, 2008    Category: Sql Server     Points: 10

To truncate a table or cluster, the table or cluster must be in your schema or you must have DROP ANY TABLE system privilege

Difference Between Delete and Truncate

Author: Shashi Ray          Posted Date: September 02, 2008    Category: Sql Server     Points: 10

.Delete table is a logged operation, so the deletion of each row gets logged in the transaction log, which makes it slow.

. Truncate table also deletes all the rows in a table, but it won't log the deletion of each row, instead it logs the de-allocation of the data pages of the table, which makes it faster. Of course, truncate table cannot be rolled back.

. Truncate table is functionally identical to delete statement with no "where clause" both remove all rows in the table. But truncate table is faster and uses fewer system and transaction log resources than delete.

. Truncate table removes all rows from a table, but the table structure and its columns, constraints, indexes etc., remains as it is.

. In truncate table the counter used by an identity column for new rows is reset to the seed for the column.

. If you want to retain the identity counter, use delete statement instead.

. If you want to remove table definition and its data, use the drop table statement.

. You cannot use truncate table on a table referenced by a foreign key constraint; instead, use delete statement without a where clause. Because truncate table is not logged, it cannot activate a trigger.

. Truncate table may not be used on tables participating in an indexed view.


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